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Types of Batteries

When it comes to powering our devices, batteries play a crucial role. But did you know that not all batteries are created equal? In fact, there are several different types of batteries, each with its own unique characteristics and uses. Let's explore the world of batteries and learn more about the different types available.

Battery Sizes

From smoke alarm and smoke sensing camera, batteries are utilized in various settings. Despite having a common function of supplying instant, portable power, a diverse range of battery sizes enables us to select the most suitable one for a specific situation.

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 AA Batteries

An AA battery is a standard size of dry cell battery commonly used in portable electronic devices. It is cylindrical in shape and typically measures about 50.5 mm in length and 14.5 mm in diameter. AA batteries are known for their versatility and are used in a wide range of devices due to their convenient size and power output.

Versatile and widely used with moderate capacity and cost. Available in rechargeable variants and suitable for a wide range of devices.

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9V Batteries

9V batteries are ideal for devices like infrared thermometers, battery powered temperature alarms, and electronic portion scales. These products face extreme temperatures from food, walk-in coolers, or kitchen equipment. 9V batteries are durable with outstanding performance in 0 to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (source).

Higher voltage suitable for specific applications like smoke detectors and alarm systems, but with lower capacity and energy density.

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CR123A Batteries

Commonly referred to simply as 123 batteries, are high power lithium based batteries used extensively in security alarm systems. Due to their high capacity and long life, they are the choice of PIR sensor manufacturers in wireless alarm system. In this application, a CR123A battery can last for up to 3 years between changes(source).

High energy density and long shelf life, making them ideal for high-drain devices and professional equipment. Higher cost but excellent performance in extreme temperatures.

 10 years battery

 AA Batteries 9V Batteries CR123A Batteries
Size Standard cylindrical, 14.5mm x 50.5mm Rectangular, 26.5mm x 17.5mm x 48.5mm Cylindrical, 17mm x 34.5mm
Voltage 1.5V (single cell) 9V 3V
Capacity 2000-3000 mAh (Alkaline) 400-600 mAh (Alkaline) 1500-2000 mAh (Lithium)
Energy Density Moderate Low High
Common Uses Remote controls, flashlights, toys, clocks Smoke detectors, transistor radios, alarms Cameras, high-drain devices, flashlights
Shelf Life 5-10 years (Alkaline) 3-5 years (Alkaline) 10 years (Lithium)
Temperature Range Moderate (-20°C to 54°C for Alkaline) Moderate (-20°C to 54°C for Alkaline) Wide (-40°C to 60°C for Lithium)
Cost Low Moderate High
Rechargeability Available in NiMH and Lithium rechargeable Available, but less common Limited availability, but rechargeable types exist
Environmental Impact Alkaline can be recycled; low impact (Lithium) Alkaline can be recycled Lithium can be recycled; higher impact due to chemicals


Battery Types


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Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that have become increasingly popular due to their high energy density and long lifespan. These batteries are commonly used in a wide range of electronic devices, from smartphones and laptops to electric vehicles and power tools.

- High Energy Density: Lithium batteries store more energy than other types, making them ideal for high-drain devices.
- Long Shelf Life: They have a long shelf life, often up to 10 years, which makes them suitable for emergency equipment and devices that require infrequent battery changes.
- Wide Temperature Range: These batteries perform well in a broad range of temperatures, from -40°C to 60°C, making them reliable in extreme conditions.

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Alkaline Batteries

Alkaline batteries are composed of zinc and manganese dioxide. The zinc serves as the anode, while the manganese dioxide acts as the cathode. The electrolyte used in alkaline batteries is potassium hydroxide.

- Widely Available: Alkaline batteries are easy to find in stores and are relatively inexpensive.
- Good Shelf Life: They have a shelf life of 5 to 10 years, making them suitable for infrequently used devices.
- Moderate Energy Density: While not as high as lithium batteries, alkaline batteries offer a good balance of capacity and cost.

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Zinc Air Batteries

Zinc air batteries are a type of electrochemical cell that use zinc as the anode and oxygen from the air as the cathode. These batteries have gained popularity in recent years due to their high energy density and long shelf life.

- High Energy Density: Zinc air batteries offer a high energy density, which is beneficial for devices requiring long-lasting power in a compact form.
- Stable Voltage: These batteries provide a stable voltage throughout their discharge cycle, which is critical for sensitive electronic devices.
- Lightweight: They are lighter compared to other battery types with similar energy capacities.


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